By E. Rasul. State University of New York College at Purchase.
Nightingale’s Legacy There is a resurgence and inclusion of concepts of spirituality in current nursing practice and a delin- Philip and Beatrice Kalisch (1987 quality cleocin gel 20gm acne 415, p purchase 20 gm cleocin gel with amex acne neonatorum. She herself said that the spe- mercy,” a far less threatening image than one of ed- ciﬁc business of nursing was the least important of ucated and skilled professional nurses. They attrib- the functions into which she had been forced in the ute nurses’ low pay to the perception of nursing Crimea. Her caring encompassed a broadened as a “calling,” a way of life for devoted women sphere—that of the British Army and, indeed, the with private means, such as Florence Nightingale entire British Commonwealth. Florence Nightingale: The unique aspects of Florence Nightingale’s Yesterday, today and tomorrow. Florence Nightingale, 1837–1853: Identity, the transformation of values of caring into an crisis and resolution. Nursing, science, and gender: Florence current health-care system into a more hu- Nightingale and Martha E. Suggestions for thought edition with commentaries by contemporary nursing leaders. Caregivers as casualties: War experiences Florence Nightingale: Potential impact of noise stress on and the postwar consequences for both Nightingale-and- wound healing. American Florence Nightingale: An introduction to her life and family Journal of Nursing, 57, 607. Florence Nightingale: A study in voca- Florence Nightingale’s spiritual journey: Biblical annotations, tion. The Florence Nightingale–Mary Stanley Florence Nightingale’s theology: Essays, letters and journal notes controversy: Some unpublished letters. Nursing Florence Nightingale on medicine, midwifery and prostitution Times, 56, 597. Florence Nightingale’s inﬂuence on nurs- Florence Nightingale and the foundation of professional nursing ing education. Catholic inﬂuences in the life of Florence Florence Nightingale and the Crimean War (Vol. Florence Nightingale as a leader in the religious and civic Florence Nightingale and hospital reform (Vol. Florence Nightingale on public health Florence Nightingale’s letter of advice to Bellevue. Contributions of the passionate Nightingale on the importance of training for nurses. This was one of the most active and fruitful pe- American Journal of Nursing, 51, 424–426. Peplau’s Process of Practice-based Theory Development and Its Applications 59 Introducing the Theorist After her graduation in 1948, Peplau was invited to remain at Columbia and teach in their master’s Hildegard Peplau was an outstanding leader and program. She immediately searched the library for pioneer in psychiatric nursing whose career books to use with students, but she found very few. A review of the events in At that time, the psychiatric nurse was viewed as a her life also serves as an introduction to the history companion to patients, someone who would play of modern psychiatric nursing. With the publica- games and take walks but talk about nothing sub- tion of Interpersonal Relations in Nursing in 1952, stantial. In fact, nurses were instructed not to talk Peplau provided a framework for the practice of to patients about their problems, thoughts, or feel- psychiatric nursing that would result in a paradigm ings. Prior to this, patients that she wanted to change the education and prac- were viewed as objects to be observed. There was no direction taught that patients were not objects but were sub- for what to include in graduate nursing programs. Peplau described this as a time of “innova- Interpersonal Relations in Nursing was not well re- tion or nothing.
In collaboration with physician buy cleocin gel 20 gm fast delivery skin care victoria bc, ensure that all physical wounds generic 20 gm cleocin gel free shipping skin care questions, fractures, and burns receive immediate attention. If the cli- ent is accompanied by the person who did the battering, she or he is not likely to be truthful about the injuries. Ask questions about whether this has happened before, whether the abuser takes drugs, whether the woman has a safe place to go, and whether she is interested in pressing charges. Some women will attempt to keep secret how their injuries occurred in an effort to protect the partner or because they are fearful that the partner will kill them if they tell. Making her own decision will give the client a sense of control over her life situation. These may include crisis hotlines, community groups for women who have been abused, shelters, counseling services, and information regarding the victim’s rights in the civil and criminal justice system. Following a discussion of these available resources, the woman may choose for herself. If her Problems Related to Abuse or Neglect ● 317 decision is to return to the marriage and home, this choice also must be respected. Knowledge of available choices can serve to decrease the victim’s sense of powerlessness, but true empowerment comes only when she chooses to use that knowledge for her own beneﬁt. Client is able to verbalize choices available to her from which she may receive assistance. Related/Risk Factors (“related to”) [The inﬂiction by caretakers of physical or sexual abuse, usually occurring over an extended period of time] [Ignoring the child’s basic physiological needs] [Indifference to the child] [Ignoring the child’s presence] [Ignoring the child’s social, educational, recreational, and devel- opmental needs] Goals/Objectives Short-term Goal Client will develop trusting relationship with nurse and report how evident injuries were sustained (time dimension to be indi- vidually determined). Long-term Goal Client will demonstrate behaviors consistent with age-appropriate growth and development. Take par- ticular note of bruises (in various stages of healing), lacera- tions, and client complaints of pain in speciﬁc areas. An accurate and thorough physical assessment is required in order to provide appropriate care for the client. Consider: If the injury is being reported as an accident, is the explanation reasonable? Fear of imprisonment or loss of child custody may place the abusive parent on the defensive. Discrepancies may be evident in the description of the incident, and lying to cover up involvement is a common defense that may be detectable in an in-depth interview. These types of play activities can provide a non- threatening environment that may enhance the child’s at- tempt to discuss these painful issues. Speciﬁc state statutes must enter into the decision of whether to report suspected child abuse. Individual state statues regarding what constitutes child abuse and neglect may be found at http://www. A report is commonly made if there is reason to suspect that a child has been in- jured as a result of physical, mental, emotional, or sexual abuse. Most states require that the following individuals report cases of suspected child abuse: all health-care work- ers, all mental health therapists, teachers, child-care pro- viders, ﬁreﬁghters, emergency medical services personnel, and law enforcement personnel. Reports are made to the Department of Health and Human Services or a law en- forcement agency. Client demonstrates trust in primary nurse by discussing abuse through the use of play therapy. In most women, these symptoms occur in the week before, and remit within a few days after, the onset of menses. The disorder has also been reported in nonmenstruating women who have had a hysterectomy but retain ovarian function.
Top Recommended Supplements Note: Supplements may be used in conjunction with prescribed therapies under doctor’s supervision generic cleocin gel 20 gm otc skin care essentials. G Ginkgo biloba: One study found that ginkgo can improve vision in those with glaucoma discount 20gm cleocin gel visa skin care yang bagus di bandung. Magnesium: Preliminary research suggests it may improve vision in those with glaucoma. Uric acid is a substance created by the breakdown of foods containing high amounts of purines, a component of protein found in organ meat, seafood, and ﬁsh. However, some people produce high amounts or are not able to eliminate it properly, leading to a buildup in the blood and the formation of uric acid crystals in the joints. Gout was once known as the “disease of kings” due to its association with consumption of rich foods and alcohol. They reduce pain and inﬂammation and work within 12–24 hours, but may cause side effects, including upset stomach, bleeding stomach, and ringing in the ears. Use only when absolutely necessary—the lowest dose for the short- est period of time. One of the oldest remedies for a gout attack is colchicine, which is derived from the herb autumn crocus. It can also be used for prevention, but is limited by unpleas- ant side effects, such as severe diarrhea and upset stomach. There are a number of drug interactions with allopurinol, so check with your phar- macist before taking new medications. However, certain lifestyle changes and nutritional supplements may help ease symptoms of an attack and prevent recurrences. Dietary Recommendations Foods to include: • Cherries (fresh, canned, or juice) help to reduce uric acid levels. Foods to avoid: • Organ meats (heart), sardines, herring, mackerel, mussels, and sweetbreads contain very high amounts of purines, which can substantially increase uric acid levels. However, if you have heart or kidney disease and are on ﬂuid restriction, consult your doctor before changing ﬂuid intake. Avoid foods highest in purines during an acute attack, and gradually resume eating these foods once symptoms disappear. Lifestyle Suggestions • Acupuncture helps to relieve pain and inﬂammation and promote relaxation. Avoid rapid weight loss or fast- G ing as this can raise uric acid levels and aggravate gout. Top Recommended Supplements Celadrin: Reduces joint pain and inﬂammation and also helps improve joint mobility. Higher amounts (4 g and higher) have been used to relieve an attack, but this should be done only under the supervision of a health care professional. Complementary Supplements Bromelain: An enzyme that helps reduce inﬂammation during an attack. Quercetin: A ﬂavonoid that in preliminary studies was found to help prevent gout attacks. Eat gout-ﬁghting foods such as cherries, berries, and pineapple; drink plenty of water. If left untreated, gum disease can lead to periodontitis, a very serious infection that destroys the soft tissue and bone that support your teeth, leading to tooth loss. Chronic periodontitis is very serious as it can lead to other health problems such as high blood sugar and increased risk of heart attack and stroke. In pregnant women it can affect the health of the un- born child and lead to premature babies.
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